CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

I.1 Background

Flower is a type from live. Flower can be a symbol of love and death. Flower in this world there are hundreds to thousands of types and one of all of flower is cherry blossoms. This flower is a form of beautiful flower that make this world full color. With everything created by God, combined premises of all flowers, then formed a perfect beauty.

A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Flowers give rise to fruit and seeds. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen.

Biologycal function of flower is as a container merging of male gametes and female to produce seeds. The process begins with pollination, is followed by fertilization, and continues with formation of seeds. Some flowers have a bright color that serves as a decoy animal pollination. Humans has long been captivated by followers, especially colorful. Flowers became one of determining the value of a plant as an ornamental plant.

            A beauty that makes a simple ordinary things become extraordinary. Something very simple that changed the world becomes colored with the charm and appeal. A beauty of a unique and difficult to find. A radiant colors that were presented to state Japanese. Cherry blossoms, with all its beauty and the simpicity able to make what we never imagined to be liked to be a new thing that really should be preserved and maintained even deserve to have. However, it starts from and how the cherry blossoms of life, not just anywhere we can find the cherry blossoms. Cherry blossom is the icon of the Japanese nation and is the typical interest or the national flower of Japan with chrysanthemums. Cherry blossoms are not only growing in Japan but also in Korea, China, Germany, and Canada.

The origins of the word “sakura” is the word “pocket” (Japanese for “bloom”) that states plus the plural suffix “ra”. Cherry tree is one of the trees belonging to the family of Rosaceae, genus Prunus similar to a tree plums, peaches, or apricots, but it is generally classified in the subgenus sakura cherry. The cherry blossoms with the Latin name “Prunus serrulata” is a typical Japanese flower that blooms in spring, which is about the beginning of January until May. First cherry blossoms bloom on the island of Okinawa (southern Japan), which is in mid-January. On the island of Kyushu (region of central Japan), cherry blossoms bloom in late March, while in the Tokyo area (North of the island of Kyushu) cherry blossoms bloom in early April. On the island of Hokkaido (northern Japan), cherry blossoms bloom in May. Period of flowering cherry tree is very short, which in Japan is known as a figure of speech namely “7-day cherry blossom”, which means that since the cherry blossom and then wither back start time approximately 7 days, and whole cherry tree since the first flowers begin to bloom until all the flowers wilt more or less time consuming and a half months.

The color of cherry blossoms depending on the species, there are white with little pink, yellow, pink, light green or red light. This flower has five petals and are very small, so hard to enjoy the beauty individually. The beauty lies in the amount of sakura flowers very much meets the stem, and bloom together.

Cherry blossoms can be seen everywhere in Japan, shown in a wide range of consumer goods, including kimono, stationery, and kitchen appliances. For the Japanese, the cherry is an important symbol, which is often associated with women, life, death, and also a symbol to express the bond between people, courage, sadness, and joy. Sakura is also a metaphor for traits that are not eternal life. In Japan, cherry blossoms are considered as carriers of fortune and luck. At the wedding ceremony and other traditional celebrations, often obliged to drink soup with stewed cherry blossoms petals of cherry blossoms in a ceramic container, whose meaning absorb the meaning of luck that is contained in the cherry blossoms.

I.2 Problem formula

1. What is the cherry blossoms and how its history?
2. Why cherry blossoms can be symbol?
3. Where habitats and what envy features cherry blossoms?
4. What is the difference with other flower cherry blossoms?
5. Mention and describe the kinds of cherry blossoms that grow in Japan and other types of the famous cherry blossoms!
6. What are the benefits and the cherry blossoms to human influence?
7. How Cherry blossoms in others country?
8. How did the history and celebration of Hanami?
9. How did the cherry blossoms in Indonesia?

I.3 Goal

The purpose of the manufacture of this paper is to provide an explanation of the cherry blossoms with all the beauty and simplicity that is in the cherry blossoms.

The purpose of making this paper are:
1. Fulfillment of duty english final semester.
2. Provide an explanation of the cherry blossoms.

I.4 Scope

1. Cherry blossoms and how its history
2.Cherry blossoms as a symbol
3. Habitat and characteristics of cherry blossoms
4. The difference with other flower cherry blossoms
5. Various kinds of cherry blossoms that grow in Japan and other types of the famous cherry blossoms
6. The benefits and the effect of cherry blossoms to human
7. Cheery blossoms in others country
8. History and celebration of hanami
9. Cherry blossoms in Indonesia

I.5 Writing method

            The method of writing this paper is descriptive. By solving the problem that were researched and written based on the fact that looks and how it is. The first writing is done by the research is to collect data and compilation of data, including analysis andinterpretation of data. I also allow all the data collected can be the key of the problem.

I.6 Hypotesis

            Maybe for other people that not know about the cherry blossoms will feel mediocre when seen at a glance. However, with the love that God gives us humansand the eye that serves to look at, certainly we will instantly fall in love with the flowers that supposedly he is a symbol of Japanese women. How not cherry blossoms with all thesimplicity and beauty can captivate every eye of the beholder. Because consciously or not, it’s cherry blossoms are very simple but very beautiful and is a metaphor for life is not eternal.


CHAPTER II

CONTENT

2.1 Cherry blossoms and history of Cherry blossoms

  • Cherry blossoms

Cherry blossoms with the chrysanthemum, is the national flower of Japan that bloom in the spring, which is about the beginning of April until the end of April. Sakura can be seen everywhere in Japan, was shown in a variety of consumer goods, including kimono, stationery, and dishware. For Japan, sakura is an important symbol, which is often associated with women, life, death, and is also the symbol for a expression bond human, courage, sorrow, and joy. Sakura also becomes a metaphor for the characteristics of life that is not eternal.

 

            Cherry blossoms is a much loved flowers and proud by the Japanese community. He became a national symbol of this nation. Government officials and diplomats to Japan, for example, often use the coat of arms of sakura as ‘ lapel pin on their shirts. Cherry blossoms also became the motto that appears in a variety of handicrafts, for example in Japan kimono, yukata, fan, cups, etc. Cherry blossoms pink, very young so he looked somewhat white from a distance. These flowers have five petals and are very small, making it difficult to enjoy its beauty on an individual basis. The beauty of the cherry blossom is located on a vast array of interest amount meets the tree trunks, and bloom together. Like tulips, mekarnya sakura also marked the beginning of the new season in Japan. In Tokyo there are several places to view cherry blossom at the beginning of the new season. Cherry tree branches laden with flowers hanging down and the Panhandle to the water at the edge of the Lake, leading to a beautiful shadows.

  • Classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants) Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (vascular plants)
  • Super Division: Spermatophyta (seed Produce)
  • Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  • Class: Magnoliopsida (two pieces / dikotil)
  • Sub Class: Rosidae
  • Order: Rosales
  • Family: Rosaceae (rose-mawaran tribe)
  • Genus: Prunus
  • Species: Prunus serrulata Lindl.

  • History of Cherry blossoms

            Cherry tree is one of the tree that belongs in the family Rosaceae, genus Prunus, the plum tree, a type with peaches, or apricots, but in general are classified in the subgenus sakura sakura. The origin of the word ‘ sakura ‘ is the word ‘ pocket ‘ (in Japan for ‘ bloom ‘) plus the suffix expresses the plural ‘ ra ‘. In the United Kingdom, the cherry blossoms called cherry blossoms. Flower colors depending on the species, one is white with some pink, light yellow, pink, light green or red light up. Cherry blossoms is an important symbol, which is often associated with women, life, death, and is also the symbol for a expression bond of human, courage, sorrow, and joy.

            Cherry blossoms trees bloom once a year, on the island of Honshu, someiyoshino cherry flower buds start to look at the type end of winter and the flowers are in bloom in late January to early May when the weather begins to warm. In Japan, sakura mekarnya of Okinawa type someiyoshino began in February, resumed in the West of the island of Honshū, arriving in Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto in late March to early April, then move little by little to the North, and ends in Hokkaido in the Golden Week holidays. Each year the observer sakura took out a map of the movement of mekarnya someiyoshino cherry blossoms from West to East and then North called sakurazensen. By using a map of known location sakurazensen cherry blossoms are in bloom at any given moment.

2.2 Cherry blossoms as a symbol

 

            In Japan, cherry blossoms also symbolize clouds due to their nature of blooming en masse, besides being an enduring metaphor for the ephemeral nature of life, an aspect of Japanese cultural tradition that is often associated with Buddhistic influence, and which is embodied in the concept of mono no aware. The association of the cherry blossom with mono no aware dates back to 18th-century scholar Motoori Norinaga. The transience of the blossoms, the extreme beauty and quick death, has often been associated with mortality; for this reason, cherry blossoms are richly symbolic, and have been utilized often in Japanese art, manga, anime, and film, as well as at musical performances for ambient effect. There is at least one popular folk song, originally meant for the shakuhachi (bamboo flute), titled “Sakura”, and several pop songs. The flower is also represented on all manner of consumer goods in Japan, including kimono, stationery, and dishware.

The Sakurakai or Cherry Blossom Society was the name chosen by young officers within the Imperial Japanese Army in September 1930 for their secret society established with the goal of reorganizing the state along totalitarian militaristic lines, via a military coup d’état if necessary.

During World War II, the cherry blossom was used to motivate the Japanese people, to stoke nationalism and militarism among the populace. Even prior to the war, they were used in propaganda to inspire “Japanese spirit,” as in the “Song of Young Japan,” exulting in “warriors” who were “ready like the myriad cherry blossoms to scatter.” In 1932, Akiko Yosano’s poetry urged Japanese soldiers to endure sufferings in China and compared the dead soldiers to cherry blossoms. Arguments that the plans for the Battle of Leyte Gulf, involving all Japanese ships, would expose Japan to serious danger if they failed, were countered with the plea that the Navy be permitted to “bloom as flowers of death.”  The last message of the forces on Peleliu was “Sakura” – cherry blossoms. Japanese pilots would paint them on the sides of their planes before embarking on a suicide mission, or even take branches of the trees with them on their missions. A cherry blossom painted on the side of the bomber symbolized the intensity and ephemerality of life; in this way, the aesthetic association was altered such that falling cherry petals came to represent the sacrifice of youth in suicide missions to honor the emperor. The first kamikaze unit had a subunit called Yamazakura or wild cherry blossom. The government even encouraged the people to believe that the souls of downed warriors were reincarnated in the blossoms.

In its colonial enterprises, imperial Japan often planted cherry trees as a means of “claiming occupied territory as Japanese space”

Cherry blossoms are a prevalent symbol in Irezumi, the traditional art of Japanese tattoos. In tattoo art, cherry blossoms are often combined with other classic Japanese symbols like koi fish, dragons or tigers.

And that very important, cherry blossoms too as symbol of women, life and death. As symbol of women, because cherry tree have a beautiful color flower, that is pink, purple, and white that is identic color of women. As symbol of life and death, because cherry blossoms have a tree that strong and able to survive all time. Where the mayority of Japanese people are Shinto. They believe that something lastingonly they get when they die. For shinto, although cherry blossoms just bloom once a year, but because the tree of cherry always grow, so they believe that the cherry blossoms is the symbol of life and death.

2.3 The habitat and the characteristics of cherry blossoms

Cherry blossoms are found in the area of Japan. cherry blossoms also grown in Canada, Germany, China and Korea. Cherry blossoms is an important symbol which is often associated with women, life, and death. Oftenalso used as symbols to express the bond between people, courage, sadness, and joy.This flower is also a metaphor for traits that are not eternal life. What is special of Sakura flowers are blossoming time. This flower only grows for 1 to 2 weeks for a year. Cheery blossoms usuallly bloom early in spring, but this flower bloom time varies. Based appetite journey site, menrioned that in the kanto region including tokyo, chiba and surrounding area, cherry blossoms bloom in late january until may.

Characteristic is the cherry types someiyoshino flowers bloom before the first leaves begin to come out. Dozens, hundreds, even thousands of trees that are in the same location, the flowers begin to bloom at once, and fall one by one at about the same time.

Cherry blossoms someiyoshino type can only survive approximately 7 to 10 days counted from the flower buds open to flowers began to fall. Impeachment of the cherry blossomsdepends on the weather and is often precipitated by heavy rains and strong winds.Several species of birds known to eat the flowers that taste sweet, whereas pigeons eatall parts of the flower.

Rare opportunity rollicking picnic under the cherry tree to enjoy the cherry blossomsblooming called hanami (ohanami). While doing hanami is when all the cherry tree that is in a place all the flowers had bloomed.

In Japan there is a standard for delivering information cherry blossoms bloom levels, ranging from the opening of flower buds (kaika), flowering of 10% of flower buds on the tree (ichibuzaki) until the flowers bloom all (mankai). Flowers that fall out soon replaced byyoung leaves. Cherry tree that flowers began to fall out and start growing young leaves as much as 10% called Ichibu hazakura. Meanwhile, the cherry trees are all the flowers have fallen and only the young leaves have called hazakura (cherry leaf).

Flowers bloom of tree species yamazakura slower than other types of someiyoshino andflowers bloom simultaneously with the release of young leaves.

2.4 The difference cherry blossoms with other flower 

            What is the difference cherry blossoms with others flower?

 

Trees produce fruit known as cherries (Japanese:sakuranbo). Young cherries are green and the ripe fruit is red to dark red to purple. Although its shape is almost similiar with canned cherries, cherry trees small size and taste awful so it is notconsumed. Cherry tree that produces cherries for consumption purposes is generally not to enjoy the flowers and only grown in plantations.  Largest cherry producers in Japan arein YamagataPrefecture. Cherries Japanese domestic products such as the type sato Nishikiextraordinarily expensive price. In Japan, domestic production of cherries purchased only to be presented on special occasions. Cherries are widely consumed by people in Japan are imported cherries from Washington state and California in the US.

A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Flowers give rise to fruit and seeds. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen.

Sakura flower is a flower that has always identified with the country of Japan. These flowersare seasonal flowers that bloom every year. Cherry blossoms bloom and beauty show in late january until may, these flowers only bloom(mankai) more or less a week. Sakura has become ‘icons’ for Japanese nationals who are also often identified beauty and beauty.

By type, currently there are about 300 kinds of cherry blossoms. All types of cherry blossoms were derived from crosses of bebagai kind of cherry blossoms in Japan.However, among the 300 kinds of cherry blossoms ShomeiYoshino it was the most famous.Shomei Yoshino cherry blossoms are produced from a cross made of cherry blossoms inthe Edo period. Berona clean white color pale pink especially near the stem. Yoshino cherry blossoms shomei this type takes one week from start bud until autumn. In addition there is a pink and others.

Interest is classified into 3 types based on the composition of the leaf crown:

  1. Single flower layer of petals
  2. Double flower layered with petals
  3. Semi-double Flower

This is flower that different with cherry blossoms but this flower too is national flower of japan:

v  Chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemums, chrysanthemum, or chrysanthemums is a kind of flowering plants are often grown as ornamental garden plants or pick flowers. These flowering plants began toappear in the Cretaceous. Chrysanthemums are part of the plant-kenikiran kenikir tribe orAsteraceae that includes various types of Chrysanthemum. The national flower of Japan is in Japanese language called キク (Kiku). Because the aroma of fragrant, flowers are often added to tea to be more fragrant and delicious.

Chrysanthemums were first cultivated in China as a flowering herb as far back as the 15th century BC. The plant is renowned as one of the Four Gentlemen in Chinese and East Asian art. The plant is particularly significant during the Double Ninth Festival. It is believed that the flower may have been brought to Japan in the 8th century CEand the Emperor adopted the flower as his official seal. There is a “Festival of Happiness” in Japan that celebrates the flower.

The flower was brought to Europe in the 17th centuryLinnaeus named it from the Greek word χρυσός chrysous, “golden” (the colour of the original flowers), and ἄνθεμον -anthemon, meaning flower.

The genus once included a larger number of species, but was split several decades ago into several genera. The naming of the genera has been contentious, but a ruling of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature in 1999 resulted in the defining species of the genus being changed toChrysanthemum indicum, thereby restoring the economically important florist’s chrysanthemum to the genus Chrysanthemum. During the period between the splitting of the genus and the ICBN ruling, these species have customarily been included under the genus name Dendranthema.

The other species previously included in the narrow view of the genus Chrysanthemum are now transferred to the genus Glebionis. The other genra from chrysanthemum include Argyranthemum, Leucanthemopsis, Leucanthemum, Rhodanthemum, and Tanacetum.

Chrysanthemum are herbaceous perennial plants growing to 50–150 cm tall, with deeply lobed leaves with large flower heads that are generally white, yellow or pink in the wild and are the preferred diet of larvae of certain lepidoptera species — see list of Lepidoptera that feed on chrysanthemums.

Cultural significance and symbolism

In some countries of Europe (FranceItalySpainPolandHungaryCroatia), chrysanthemums are symbolic of death and are only used for funerals or on graves – similarly, in China, Japan and Korea, white chrysanthemums are symbolic of lamentation and/or grief. In some other countries, it represents honesty. In the United States , the flower is usually regarded as positive and cheerful, with New Orleans as a notable exception 

A Ming Dynasty Chinese red lacquerware dish with carved design of chrysanthemums and dragons

Chrysanthemum Crest on the Japanese battleship Mikasa

Chrysanthemum Crest The gate of Yasukuni shrine

  • Australia
    • In Australia, traditionally the chrysanthemum is given to mothers for mother’s day as the flower is naturally in season during Autumn.
    • China
      • The chrysanthemum is one of the “Four Gentlemen” (四君子) of China (the others being the plum blossom, the orchid, and bamboo). The chrysanthemum is said to have been favored by Tao Qian, an influential Chinese poet, and is symbolic of nobility. It is also one of the four symbolic seasonal flowers.
      • A Chrysanthemum Festival is held each year in Tongxiang, near Hangzhou, China.
      • Chrysanthemums are the topic in hundreds of poems of China.
      • The “golden flower” referred to in the 2006 movie Curse of the Golden Flower is a chrysanthemum.
      • “Chrysanthemum Gate” often abbreviated as Chrysanthemum is taboo slang meaning “anus” (with sexual connotations)
      • Chrysanthemums were first cultivated in China as a flowering herb as far back as the 15th century BC.
      • An ancient Chinese city (Xiaolan Town of Zhongshan City) was named Ju-Xian, meaning “chrysanthemum city”.
      • The plant is particularly significant during the Double Ninth Festival.
      • Germany
        • Industrial musicians Einstürzende Neubauten base their song blume around the flower.
        • Japan
          • The Chrysanthemum Throne is the name given to the position of Japanese emperor.
          • Chrysanthemum crest (kikukamonshō or kikkamonshō) is a general term for a mon of chrysanthemum blossom design; there are more than 150 different patterns. The Imperial Seal of Japan is a particularly notable one; it is used by members of the Japanese Imperial family. There are also a number of formerly state-endowed shrines (kankokuheisha) which have adopted a chrysanthemum crest, most notably Tokyo’s Yasukuni Shrine.
          • The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum is a Japanese honor awarded by the emperor.
          • The city of Nihonmatsu, Japan hosts the “Nihonmatsu Chrysanthemum Dolls Exhibition” every autumn in historical ruin of Nihonmatsu Castle.
          • In Imperial Japan, small arms were required to be stamped with the Imperial Chrysanthemum as they were considered the personal property of the Emperor.
          • The Chrysanthemum is also considered to be the seasonal flower of September.
          • United States
            • The chrysanthemum is the flower of the American musician fraternity Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia.
            • The yellow chrysanthemum is the flower of the Phi Kappa Sigma international fraternity.
            • Chrysanthemums were recognized as the official flower of the city of Chicago in 1961.
            • Chrysanthemums are the official flower of the city of Salinas, California
            • The Indie rock band The Mountain Goats references Chrysanthemum in the title song from their 1995 album Nine Black Poppies.
            • The Rock band Everclear has a song named after the flower.
            • The Punk rock band Strung Out references the flower in the song Lucifermotorcade.
            • Afi (A Fire Inside) references the flower in their song The Great Disappointment on Sing the Sorrow (2003). Possibly as a symbol of the ethereal nature of happiness and innocence.
            • The yellow chrysanthemum is the official flower of Sigma Alpha, a professional Agricultural sorority.
            • Others
              • The white chrysanthemum is the flower of Triangle Fraternity, a society of engineers, architects, and scientists.
              • The term “chrysanthemum” is also used to refer to a certain type of firework shell that produces a pattern of trailing sparks similar to a chrysanthemum flower.
              • The chrysanthemum is also the flower of November.

From second kinds flower that explained above, can be concluded that unlike the cherry blossoms of roses and chrysanthemums. Where chrysanthemums are also the national flower is the same as the Japanese cherry blossoms. seen from the shape, color, and the other salient characteristics, far more beautiful cherry blossoms of roses and chrysanthemums. Cherry blossoms too have a fruit called cherries.

2.5 Various kinds of cherry blossoms that grow in Japan and other types of the famous cherry blossoms

Most types of cherry trees is the result of crossbreeding, such as the type someiyoshinoscattered throughout Japan since the Meiji era is a result of crossing a cherry tree at the end of the Edo period. Sakura type someiyoshino this is very widespread, so most peopleonly know someiyoshino (which is one kind of cherry) as a cherry.

In the old days before there is a type someiyoshino, Japanese people know the cherry blossoms that bloom in mountains called yamazakura and yaezaki no sakura as cherry. In the current blossoming of cheery blossoms, yamazakura thousands of trees that grow in the mountains of yoshino(nara precture) creates stunning views of white, light green, and pink.

Three types of the famous cherry blossoms:

  1. Edohigan

Edohigan is a cherry that bloom in spring. Have a flower with purple. Edogian tree have a the trunk is black and not too large.

  1. Hikanzakura

Hikanzakura kanhizakura is also called cherry spread from southern china regions up to the island of formosa. Kanhizakura commonly found growing wild in Okinawa Prefecture.For the people of Okinawa, the word “sakura” often means hikansakura. Announcement of the cherry blossoms blooming in Okinawa usually means blossoming hikanzakura. In okinawa, hikanzakura flower buds begin to open around january until february. On the island of Honshu, hikanzakura widely planted from the Kanto region to Kyushu and usuallybegin to bloom around February or March.

  1. Fuyuzakura

Fuyuzakura (winter cherry) is a type of cherry tree that flowers bloom around November untillate December. Onishimachi in Gunma Prefecture is the place to see the famousfuyuzakura.

2.6 Benefits and the effect of cherry blossoms to human

The benefits and the effect of cherry blossoms is:

  • Raw materials such as mochi ice cream and cake (cake wrapper) in Japan
  • Fragrance in perfumes or fragrances, foods made in japan
  • Cherry blossom tea drinks made in the Japanese society wedding
  • Twig and bud as a food coloring made in japan
  • Leaves of the cherry blossoms in the state of food made in japan
  • As a flower aromatheraphy or energytheraphy cure some diseasea

2.7 Cherry blossoms in others country

Ø  Australia

 

During World War II, a prisoner of war (POW) camp near the town of Cowra in New South Wales, Australia was the site of one of the largest prison escapes of the war, on 5 August 1944. During the Cowra breakout and subsequent rounding up of POWs, four Australian soldiers and 231 Japanese soldiers died and 108 prisoners were wounded. The Japanese War Cemetery holding the dead from the Breakout was tended to after WWII by members of the Cowra RSL and ceded to Japan in 1963. In 1971 the Cowra Tourism Development decided to celebrate this link to Japan, and proposed a Japanese Garden for the town. The Japanese government agreed to support this development as a sign of thanks for the respectful treatment of their war dead; the development also received funding from the Australian government and private entities.

The garden was designed by Ken Nakajima (1914–2000), a world-renowned designer of Japanese gardens at the time. The first stage was opened in 1979, with a second stage opened in 1986.

The gardens were designed in the style of the Edo period and are a kaiyū-shiki or strolling garden. They are designed to show all of the landscape types of Japan. At five hectares (12 acres), the Cowra Japanese Garden is the largest Japanese garden in the Southern Hemisphere. An annual Sakura Matsuri(cherry blossom festival) is a major event in Cowra’s tourism calendar and is held in the gardens during September.

Ø  Brazil

 

With the Japanese diaspora to Brazil, many immigrants brought seedlings of cherry trees. In the Parana State (in southern Brazil), many cities received many of these immigrants, who planted the trees, as in Apucarana, Maringa, Cascavel and especially in the capital city of Curitiba.

In the capital city of Parana, the first seedlings were taken by Japanese immigrants in the first half of the 20th century, but began to be planted in large quantities from the 1990s, with the opening of the Botanical Garden of Curitiba. Now the seedlings are produced by the city and used in afforestation of streets and squares as in the Japanese Square, where have more than 30 cherry trees around the square sent by the Japanese Empire to Curitiba.

Ø  Canada

Vancouver, BC is famous for its thousands of cherry blossom trees lining many streets and in many parks, including Queen Elizabeth Park and Stanley Park. Vancouver holds the annual Vancouver Cherry Blossom Festival every year.High Park in Toronto, Ontario features many Somei-Yoshino cherry trees (the earliest species to bloom and much loved by the Japanese for their fluffy white flowers) that were given to Toronto by Japan in 1959. Through the Sakura Project, the Japanese Embassy donated a further 34 cherry trees to High Park in 2001, plus cherry trees to various other locations like Exhibition Place,McMaster University, York University and the University of Toronto’s main and Scarborough campuses.

Ø  China

The cherry trees naturally grow in China. However, the two most famous cherry blossom parks in China reflect Japan’s brief occupation of parts of China during the first half of the 20th century or the donation from Japan thereafter:

  • Longwangtang Cherry Blossom Park in Lushun, Dalian, Liaoning
  • Wuhan University in Donghu District, Wuhan, Hubei
  • Germany

The cherry blossom is a major tourist attraction in Germany’s Altes Land orchard region. The largest Hanami in Germany, in Hamburg, with Japanese-style fireworks, organized by the German-Japanese society, draws tens of thousands spectators every spring.

Ø  South Korea

Watching of cherry blossom was introduced to Korea during Japanese rule.The festivals continued even after the Japanese surrendered in WWII, but have been contentious, and many cherry trees have been destroyed because they were seen as symbols of the occupation.However, there has been considerable confusion about the origin of the cultivated Japanese cherry trees and the differences between them and native Korean trees. Certain trees at Seoul’s Gyeongbok Palace were cut down to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Japanese surrender in World War II.Although Cherry blossoms are already indigenous to Korea, Japan had planted trees on sacred and offensive locations in the Palace. Once the offending trees were cut down the festival continued with the indigenous trees. The cherry blossom festival at Gyeongbok Palace is one of a number of such festivals across Korea and is prominently advertised to tourists.

In 1933, the Japanese botanist Koizumi Genichi reported that the Japanese Sakura (Somei Yoshino) originated on Jeju-do island (Quelpaert). In 1916, Ernest Henry Wilson had thought that “Japanese Sakura (Somei Yoshino)” was a crossbreed of the wild species of Japanese Sakura (“Edo higan” and “Oshima zakura”). In 1991, Professor of Tsukuba University Iwasaki Fumio reported that “Japanese Sakura (Somei Yoshino) originated around 1720–1735 by the artificial crossing in Edo (Tokyo). “Recent studies conducted on the comparison of Korean and Japanese cherry blossoms concluded that the two trees can be categorized as distinct species,but the Korean species apparently has not yet been given a scientific name.

  • Turkey

In 2005, Japanese cherry trees were presented by Japan to the Nezahat Gokyigit Botanical Garden in Istanbul, Turkey. Each tree represents one sailor of Ertugrul Frigate which was the a famous frigate of the Ottoman/Turkish navy. She had encountered a typhoon on the way back from a goodwill visit to Japan in 1890. That heavy weather condition caused her to sink. That disaster resulted with unfortunate loss of 587 Ottoman/Turkish sailors. That unfortunate occurrence is being remembered in every anniversary. The Japanese Cherry Trees represent memory of those passed away and provide remembrance.

Ø  United Kingdom

Batsford Arboretum in Gloucestershire holds the national collection of Japanese village cherries, sato-sakura group.Keele University in Staffordshire has one of the UK’s largest collections of flowering cherries, with more than 150 varieties.

Ø  United States

Cherry blossoms in Washington, D.C

Japan gave 3,020 cherry blossom trees as a gift to the United States in 1912 to celebrate the nations’ then-growing friendship, replacing an earlier gift of 2000 trees which had to be destroyed due to disease in 1910. These trees were planted in Sakura Park in Manhattan and line the shore of the Tidal Basin in Washington, D.C. (see West Potomac Park). The gift was renewed with another 3,800 trees in 1965. The cherry blossom trees continue to be a popular tourist attraction (and the subject of the annual National Cherry Blossom Festival) when they reach full bloom in early spring. Also, Balboa Park of San Diego has 2,000 cherry blossom trees that blossom in mid to late March. In Los Angeles, over 2,000 trees are located at Lake Balboa in Van Nuys. These trees were donated by an anonymous Japanese benefactor and were planted in 1992. They originated from a single parent tree and were developed to grow in warm climates.Philadelphia is also home to over 2000 flowering Japanese cherry trees, half of which were a gift from the Japanese government in 1926 in honor of the 150th anniversary of American independence, with the other half planted by the Japan America Society of Greater Philadelphia between 1998 and 2007. Philadelphia’s cherry blossoms are located withinFairmount Park, and the annual Subaru Cherry Blossom Festival of Greater Philadelphia celebrates the blooming trees. The University of Washington in Seattle also has cherry blossoms in its Quad.

Cherry blossoms in Newark, New Jersay

Other US cities have an annual Cherry Blossom Festival (or Sakura Matsuri), including the International Cherry Blossom Festival in Macon, Georgia, which features over 300,000 cherry trees. Belleville, Bloomfield, and Newark, New Jersey celebrate the annual Branch Brook Park Cherry Blossom Festival in April, which attracts thousands of visitors from the local area, Japan, and India. As of April 2009, Branch Brook Park has a cherry tree collection with over 4,000 cherry blossoms in more than fourteen different varieties. Branch Brook Park will soon have more flowering cherry trees than Washington, D.C. thanks to an ongoing replanting program. The Brooklyn Botanic Garden in New York City also has a large, well-attended festival.Portsmouth, New Hampshire, is the site of the peace conference that produced the Treaty of Portsmouth, for which the original Washington, DC cherry trees were given in thanks. Several cherry trees planted on the bank of the tidal pond next to Portsmouth City Hall were the gift of Portsmouth’s Japanese sister city of Nichinan the hometown of Marquis Komura Jutaro, Japan’s representative at the conference.

2.8 Hanami

  • History of hanami

The practice of hanami is many centuries old. The custom is said to have started during the Nara Period (710–784) when the Chinese Tang Dynasty influenced Japan in many ways; one of which was the custom of enjoying flowers. Though it was ume blossoms that people admired in the beginning, by the Heian Period, sakura came to attract more attention. From then on, in tanka and haiku, “flowers” meant “sakura.”

Hanami was first used as a term analogous to cherry blossom viewing in the Heian era novel Tale of Genji. Whilst a wisteria viewing party was also described, from this point on the terms “hanami” and “flower party” were only used to describe cherry blossom viewing.

Sakura originally was used to divine that year’s harvest as well as an announcer of the rice-planting season. People believed in gods’ existence inside the trees and made offerings at the root of sakura trees. Afterwards, they partook of the offering with sake.

Emperor Saga of the Heian Period adopted this practice, and held flower-viewing parties with sake and feasts underneath the blossoming boughs of sakura trees in the Imperial Court in Kyoto. Poems would be written praising the delicate flowers, which were seen as a metaphor for life itself, luminous and beautiful yet fleeting and ephemeral. This was said to be the origin of hanami in Japan.

The custom was originally limited to the elite of the Imperial Court, but soon spread to samurai society and, by the Edo period, to the common people as well. Tokugawa Yoshimune planted areas of cherry blossom trees to encourage this. Under the sakura trees, people had lunch and drank sake in cheerful feasts.

Japanese people continue the tradition of hanami, gathering in great numbers wherever the flowering trees are found. Thousands of people fill the parks to hold feasts under the flowering trees, and sometimes these parties go on until late at night. In more than half of Japan, the cherry blossoming period coincides with the beginning of the scholastic and fiscal years, and so welcoming parties are often opened with hanami.

The teasing proverb dumplings rather than flowers(hana yori dango) hints at the real priorities for most cherry blossom viewers. (A punning variation, Boys Over Flowers(Hana Yori Dango), is the title of a manga and anime series).

Ø  Hanami celebration

 

Hanami is a celebration of one of Japan’s annual celebration in the country that exists only in the spring, precisely in April.
Hanami celebration is a celebration to see the cherry blossoms, which is typical of the state flower Sunrise. Hanami, a celebration which was held in a simple but with kesederhanaanya it, just a hanami celebration of the greatest pleasures for the Japanese people in their lives a year.

This culture that has begun to fade in some communities in Indonesia itself. Today, the people of Indonesia, the economic upper classes generally makes people more likely to seek pleasure by spending money, as a symbol of absolute luxury of happiness. In fact, from simplicity as contained in the celebration of hanami in Japan it can also create their own happiness, because at the time of the celebration of hanami, the Japanese people not only enjoy the beauty of cherry blossoms, but the Japanese also have their own time to gather together family and loved ones.

Hanami celebration of the history of the means to see the cherry blossoms, in celebration of its development is seen more as a recreational event. Can we imagine the happiness of the Japanese people when they feel the warmth of the family gathered together amongst lush cherry trees are blooming. A family recreation in the warmth of a traditional culture that will not be shaken by the presence of a modern lifestyle.The reality is quite different from the state of Indonesian society. Indonesia’s eastern culture actually eroded by the presence of western cultures that led to the Indonesian people, especially the city, people seem to be an individual. They were too busy with their work, so rarely have the time to gather with family.

Hanami celebration can not be regarded as a bisaa celebration, because even just witnessed the flowering of the cherry blossoms, hanami celebrations showed the presence of the Japanese love of cherry blossoms. The celebration of this kind may not be encountered in other countries, the amazing thing is still preserving the culture of Japanese society hanami, although in this modern era many choices of places to relax with the family, such as going to a karaoke place. Japanese society still choose to hang out and relax with your family under the cherry tree while enjoying the beauty of cherry blossoms.

Firmness of Japanese society in preserving their traditional culture, deserves to be imitated. Not just a hanami, kebisaaan send nengajo (post card) at the time of the new year and remains well ahead of last summer amid the Japanese people. Despite the sophistication of technology has allowed them to leave the postcard, but the Japanese people still carry the traditional culture. Likewise, when the sophistication of technology has penetrated modern society, only a fraction of those who continue to use the services of post office to send a postcard or letter.

Perhaps we can reflect on how the Japanese people still able to preserve their traditional culture. Because of trivial things like that will create perfection, but perfection is not a trivial thing.

In general, the cherry blossoms are blooming begins in the warmer south tube, which is on the island of Okinawa, and then spread to the north, and ended up in Hokkaido. On an internet web at once explained that the big lesson of life is stored in the presence of the cherry blossoms. Behind the small size, which has a wide range of flower color variation, which in every tangkainnya grown from five to hundreds of examples of this interest has given us that little things when strung together in a large strands can give a beauty, and the little things means greater when combined. It could be because of some features found on the cherry blossom’s why the Japanese people are so excited to celebrate hanami to witness the flowering of the cherry blossoms that only last for seven to ten days.

  • Garden party

Has become a culture, the entire population of Japan await the arrival of the cherry blossoms are blooming. They enthusiastically watching the cherry blossoms. Enjoy by looking at the cherry, called hanami.

Become a habit too, Japanese people held a garden party under the cherry blossom trees, gathered reriungan with co-workers or relatives, eating and drinking together while singing. A festive garden party was called enkai.

Ironically, the momentum of the cherry blossoms are blooming highly anticipated did not last long. Short period of time, approximately one week to ten days. After that, the flower petal or leaves a thin, highly susceptible to wind the spring, will start falling.

Cherry blossom tree is usually planted in groups in large numbers. In the spring, the gardens looked beautiful, like a cherry blossoms shrouded in white, pink (pink), or light yellow.

  • Always Announced

When the cherry blossoms start blooming very difficult to predict with precision. All depends on the local climate and influenced by natural factors such as rain, wind, and weather.

In general, the cherry blossoms are blooming begins in the warmer south tube. In the area of Okinawa, cherry blossoms started blooming in January.

The hot climate spread to the north. In the area of Hokkaido, the northernmost area, new cherry blossoms bloom in May. In Tokyo and surrounding areas in late March and early April. In mountain areas tube cooler, cherry blossoms will bloom later.

To meet the desires of its citizens, every day of the Japan Meteorological Agency via electronic and printed media, touting the news climate developments and forecasts the coming of the cherry blossoms season for each area. That way, people can plan on time and location for hanami and enkai party.

Because Tokyo is a cosmopolitan city filled with tall buildings, to see the cherry blossoms need to find the best location. The best location could mean the park as a public space.

Please note, not all parks in Tokyo is open free to the public. Best location in Tokyo, among others, in Ueno Park, Yoyoki Park, Chidorigafuchi, Sumida Park, Inokashira, and Aoyama Cemetery Park is open free of charge, while in Shinjuku Gyoen and Koishikawa Botanical Gardens, we have to pay entrance fees 200-330 yen, or about 16 -26 thousand dollars.

  • Groups

Cherry blossoms usually planted in groups. When flowering, all the cherry blossoms on a tree will bloom at the same location. Because the tree is leafless, flower beds that look entirely, especially if interest gompiok. It’s beautiful!

Cherry blossoms there are more than a hundred varieties, the majority is the Somei Yoshino variety and Yamazakura. Generally the amount petalnya 5 pieces, some are 20 strands. A thicker, usually has about 100 pieces of petal. Cherry blossoms with more than 5 pieces of petal called yaezakura.

Most are cherry blossoms pink and white. There is also an old pink and yellowish white. It can change color, when I started growing white, then changed to reddish. To be sure, the cherry blossoms in Japan does not turn into a cherry

2.9 Chery blossoms in Indonesia

            In Indonesia we can see the cherry blossoms in botanical gardens Cibodas, Cipanas, Cianjur. In the flower garden you can enjoy the beauty of the cherry blossom. In Cibodas Botanical Garden, Sakura already planted since 1953 will bloom in about the month January to February or from February to March.

Cherry blossoms is in this Indonesia will bloom twice a year. Herein lies the uniqueness of the Botanical Garden Sakura Cibodas. In their home country, Sakura only bloom once a year.When the corresponding estimates, around July is the second time for Sakura to flowering lagi.Kebun Cibodas have the same height with the original habitat Sakura.

In addition there are four seasons in Japan, while here only two seasons. After the rainy season, changing the summer, the cherry blossoms will look nicer in the summer.Contours of the land, how to care, and climate caused the flowering Cibodas 2 times the early and mid-year.

Sakura is a cycle through which diawalai with growing leaves around branches of the tree first. When the rainy season, the leaves will turn yellow and fall. When summer comes, only then will grow flowers. From bud to bloom, the flowers will last for a week. however, the unpredictable weather conditions, sometimes the heat and rain accompanied by wind, Sakura flowers will fall off easily. But after that it will grow leaves again.

In Japan, Sakura propagation can only be done through cuttings and seeds. In Cibodas Botanical Garden, Sakura flowers can be reproduced by transplanted. If want to plant in a location that tends to Sakura-temperature heat, such as Jakarta, Sakura will only grow leaves, but will not bloom.

Sakura will only bloom and grow well when planted at high altitudes and low temperatures (cold). The Japanese who came to claim wondered why Sakura was able to bloom twice.Finally they were so challenged to plant Sakura here, and given the initials of their names.

Sakura’s beauty stands out in color and shape of the flowers are tiny, beautiful, beautiful, pink, white with a tinge of color. Sakura flower bloom can last for about 4 days.

While the time required from the flower buds grow into the autumn flowers, about 1 week.however, Sakura flowers will quickly and easily fall if the weather is not supported, such as heavy rain or strong winds.

There are about 308 types of Sakura’s scattered all over the world. While at the Botanical Gardens Cibodas, there are only seven types of cherry blossoms that cerasoides Prunus, Prunus yedoensis, yamasakura Prunus, Prunus lannesiana, Prunus sp., Prunus arborea, and Prunus costata. However, there are about 300 Sakura trees planted there.

To enjoy Sakura is blooming, Botanical Garden Sakura Cibodas provide a place to enjoy the beauty of Sakura flowers cerasoides Prunus species, Prunus yedoensis, yamasakura Prunus, Prunus lannesiana, and Prunus sp.

In 2002, Ir. Holif Immamudin who was then serving as head of the Botanical Gardens Cibodas, began to see the uniqueness of Sakura. He finally asked Sakura to be reproduced by distek, grafted, seed and seedlings.

Propagation by cuttings of the results quite a long time. Ways proved most successful grafts, while the seeds of the results are not too good and a bit slow.

Finally, the number at the Botanic Garden Sakura Cibodas increases until it reaches a 300-tree. However, there are some disadvantages of Sakura planted here, that is not growing in unison. However, on the other hand it is precisely this that so the excess.

In Japan, when the cherry-blossom had fallen out, had to wait another year to go back to enjoy the beauty of flowers. While at the Botanic Garden Cibodas, growth that does not simultaneously make Sakura Sakura flowers blooming in turn, although only a few flowers grew. In Japan, Sakura leaves will fall in the month of March-April, to then be replaced by the emergence of a blooming flower.

Another disadvantage, autumn leaves absolutely no place Sakura, but Sakura flowers will easily fall, especially when exposed to rain and strong winds. Nevertheless, Holif very grateful, because society so do not have far to travel to Japan and the expensive cost to enjoy the beautiful Sakura flowers. 

In the seventh inter Sakura at the Botanical Gardens Cibodas, there are also types that are often collected Sakura, namely Prunus arborea from Java, Prunus costata from Irian (Papua), and Prunus cerasoides of the Himalayas. Prunus cerasoides Sakura is the oldest type contained in Cibodas, and was first planted on May 13, 1971.

 

CHAPTER III

CLOSSING

3.1 CONCLUSSION

A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Flowers give rise to fruit and seeds. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen.

Cherry blossom is the icon of the Japanese nation and is the typical interest or the national flower of Japan with chrysanthemums. Cherry blossoms are not only growing in Japan but also in Korea, China, Germany, and Canada. Cherry blossoms have the hundreds kinds in Japan. Cherry blossoms in japan is a flower that bloom when january until may. When cherry blossoms bloom, japanese make a celebration. Celebration of cherry blossoms is Hanami. And then, Japanese nation have benefit from this celebration. In Indonesia, we can look cherry blossoms in cibodas garden, cipanas garden and cianjur garden.

            Maybe for other people that not know about the cherry blossoms will feel mediocre when seen at a glance. However, with the love that God gives us humansand the eye that serves to look at, certainly we will instantly fall in love with the flowers that supposedly he is a symbol of Japanese women. How not cherry blossoms with all thesimplicity and beauty can captivate every eye of the beholder. Because consciously or not, it’s cherry blossoms are very simple but very beautiful and is a metaphor for life is not eternal.

3.2 Suggestion

Flowers are a gift from God to be thankful for, protected, cared for, and protect evenpreserved. As humans, it is our duty to continue to preserve flowers, because flowers are the beautyworld.

The cherry blossom is the national flower of Japan is very rare in Indonesia is a deposit which must be preserved. Although the cherry blossoms are not indigenous Indonesianculture, but can not be denied the cherry blossoms are God’s creation that it is proper to be maintained.
So, keep God’s creation is priceless, because this is a very special gift that is the beauty of the world.